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MONICA KLEM is an independent scholar whose research has focused on ordinary women’s negotiations of moral questions in private and civic life during the nineteenth century. She holds a Master’s Degree in Public Policy from Pepperdine University and has been published in Philanthropy magazine and the Encyclopedia of American Philanthropy. She lives in Northern California.
In the years following the Civil War, pioneers in the women’s rights movement, women’s medical education, and public-private charitable partnerships joined forces to reduce the incidence of abortion in America. As alumni of the abolitionist movement, they analyzed abortion in ways that resembled their earlier critiques of slavery.